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NMMS Study Material Geography-I


Main Points :

  • The sun is the prinicpal source of energy.
  • The energy constantly emitted by the sun is known as solar radiation.
  • The solar radiation received on the surface of the Earth is called ‘Insolation’
  • Plants and animals depend upon heat and water.
  • We also receive many other forms of energy from the sun like UV rays, radio waves, X rays.
  • 1/3rd of solar energy is reflected back by the Earth’s atmosphere.
  • The sun rays fall at about 90^0 on the Equator and fall slantingly towards the poles. This is called “Angle of Incidence”.
  • Land is considered as “Good conductor of heat. While Land gets heated and cooled quickly. Oceans will take heat and cool.
  • Carbon dioxide prevents raditaton of heat from the Earth.
  • Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases due to heay utilisation of defores- tation etc…
  • If co2 increases, less heat will be radiated which causes ‘ Global warming’.
    Temperature is measured by Thermometer.
  • The Lowest temperature is recorded in Antarctica, i.e. – 89.2 celsius. (Vostok)
  • The Highest temperature is recorded in Azizia in Libya (Africa) i.e. 57.80c
  • Boiling point of temperature is around 1000c
  • Freezing point of temperature is 00c.
  • The temperature cannot go below – 273.160c.
  • The climate in Hyderabad will be extreme climate as it is far away from the sea.
  • Temperature decreases with elevation (height).
  • Delhi is at an elevation of about 200 metres above from the sea level.
  • Shimla is at an elevation of about 2276 metres above from sea level.
  • So, temperature in shimla is lower than that of Delhi. So, Shimla is cooler than Delhi.
  • Usually for every 1000 metres increase in elevation, the temperature falls by about 60c.
  • Nigeria is situated on the Equator.
  • Indonesia is located in Equatorial region.
  • There is no winter season in Indonesia.
  • The places near the equator, usually get more heat.
  • The sun rises first in Arunachal Pradesh in our country.
  • The Sun set last in Gujarath
  • Japan is called as the ‘Land of rising sun’ (Nippon).
  • ‘ Norway is called as ‘ Land of Midnight sun’
  • We can grow fruits & vegetables in cold regions by building Green – houses.
  • Temperature difference between places causes winds & rains
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