Friday, February 3, 2023
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National Insignia

  1. National Anthem
    The Song ‘Jana Gana Mana‘, composed by Rabindranath Tagore, was adopted as ‘national anthem‘ by the Constituent Assembly on 24 January 1950.
    The National Anthem turned 100 as it was first sung on 27 December 1911 at the Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress. Also 2013 marked the 100th year of Tagore’s winning of the Nobel Prize for literature for Gitanjali. The first stanza (out of five stanzas) formed the national anthem.
  1. National Song
    The national song ‘Vande Mataram‘ was composed by Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay. It was taken from his novel Anand Math (Published in 1882) written in Sanskrit.
    It was an equal status with ‘Jana Gana Mana.‘
    It was first sung in the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress.
  1. National Flag
    The national flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 July 1947 and was presented to India on 14 August 1947 at the midnight session of the Assembly.
    The ratio of the width to the length of the Indian flag is 2:3. All the three colours are of equal width, with deep saffron at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom. Saffron stands for courage, sacrifice and spirit of renunciation; white for purity and truth; and green for faith and fertility.
    In the centre of the white band, there is a wheel with 24 spokes in navy blue to indicate the Dharma Chakra, which was the wheel of law in the Lion Capital at Sarnath.
  1. National emblem
    The national emblem is the replica of the Lion Capital at Sarnath (Uttar Pradesh). The four lions, standing back to back (one seems hidden while viewing), rest on a circular abacus (base plate). This emblem symbolises power, courage and confidence.
    The abacus is guarded by four animals, considered the guardians of the four directions, the lion of the north, the elephant of the east, the horse of the south and the bull of the west.
    The Motto ‘Satya Meva Jayate‘ from the Mundaka Upanishad is inscribed below the emblem in Devanagari script, which means ‘truth alone triumphs‘.
    The national emblem was adopted by the Government of India on 26 January 1950, the day India became a Republic.
  1. National Calendar
    The national calendar, based on the Saka Era with ‘Chaitra‘ as the first month and a normal year of 365 days, was adopted from 22 March 1957.
    At the time of independence, the Government of India followed the Gregorian calendar based on the Christia era.
    The date of the Saka Calendar has the permanent correspondence with date of Gregorian calendar; first day of Chaitra being the 22 March of the Gregorian Calendar in a normal year and in a leap year it starts with 21 March.
  1. National Animal
    Tiger (Panthera tigris) has been adopted as India’s national animal since November 1972.
    To safeguard the tiger population, the Indian Government has launched Tiger Project on 1 April 1973. Under this project, more than 40 tiger reserves have been established throughout the country.
  1. National Bird
    Peacock (Pavo cristatus) is the national bird of India.
    Peacocks have been given complete protection under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
  1. National Aquatic animal
    River dolphin  (Platanista gangetica) is the national aquatic animal of India. The Ministry of Environment and Forests notified the Ganges River dolphin as the national aquatic animal on 18 May 2010. The main reasons for decline in the population of the species are poaching and habitat degradation due to declining flow, heavy siltation, construction of barrages causing physical barrier for this migratory species.
  1. National Flower
    Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) is the national flower of India. The lotus symbolises spirituality, fruitfulness, wealth, knowledge and illumination.
  1. National fruit

    Mano (Mangifer indica) is the national fruit of India.
  1. National Tree
    Banyan (Ficus bengalensis) is the national tree of India. The roots give rise to more trunks and branches symbolising longevity for which it is considered immortal and is an integral part of the myths and legends of India.
  1. National River
    The Ganga or Ganges is the national river of India
  1. National Sport
    Hockey is the national sport of India
  1. National Days
    26 January – Republic day – India became republic on this day in 1950
    30 January – Martyr’s day – Gandhiji assassinated on this day in 1948
    15 August     – Independence day- India achieved independence on this day in 1947.
    5 September – Teachers Day – Birthday of Dr. S. Radhakrishnan
    2 October – Gandhi Jayanti – Birthday of Mahatma Gandhi
    14 November – Children’s Day – Birthday of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru
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