Saturday, January 28, 2023



  1. Describe the circumstances that determine the variation of Salinity.
  2. Prepare a write up on Ocean Currents.
  3. During the ruling period of Chola kings, two Samithi’s were functioning. One among them was Sabha. Explain the factors of Sabha.
  4. Describe the factors that helped the agricultural development in South India.
  5. What is Sustainable Development? What are its three objectives?
  6. Both High-tide and Low tide have its own benefits. What are they?

7.The Sultans implemented centralized rule in the administrative system. Explain its features.

  1. What were the quantitative impacts of Bhakti Movement in India?
  2. Match the following column A to B.
Mansabdari System Chola Administration
Iqta system Shivaji
Village autonomy Krishnadevaraya
Ashtapradhan Sultanate rule
Amuktamalyada Akbar


  1. What were the features of the Market reforms implemented by Alauddin Khalji?


  1.  Salinity will be more in land -locked seas.

Salinity increases in areas of high evaporation

Salinity decreases in areas where snow melt water reaches in large quantity.

Salinity decreases at river mouths.

Heavy rainfall leads to reduction in salinity.

  1. Ocean Currents are the continuous flow of sea water from one direction to another. They can be classified as warm currents and cold currents. Warm currents are the currents that flow from the tropical or sub tropical regions towards the polar or sub polar regions. Similarly cold currents are the currents that flow in from the polar or the sub polar regions towards the tropical or sub tropical regions.
  2. There were separate regulations for the  functioning of the Sabha.

The Sabha was divided into many panchayats with separate  responsibilities for administrative convenience.

The members were elected annually.

The members of the Sabha were called Perumakkal.

  1. Water prosperity in River Kaveri. 

Alluvial deposit of its distributaries.

Canal constructed for for irrigation by the Chola Kings.

The measures taken by the Samitis that worked under the Sabhas, the body for village administration.

  1. ‘‘ Development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet theirown need.’’

The main goals of sustainable  development : 

  • Environmental goals.
  • Economic goals.      

      Social goals.

  1. The debris dumped along the sea shores and ports are washed off to the deep sea.

Brackish water can be collected in salt pans during high tides.

Tidal energy can be used for power generation.

  1. The influence of Turkish tradition.

 The Sultan was the head of administration, military and judiciary.

 There were different ministers and officers to assist the king in administration.

 An exact law of succession was absent.

 Regional laws prevailed at the village level.

8. The concept of social equality strengthen among the people again cast discriminate.

The idea of female-male(gender equality) came to being.

 Social evils were questioned.


Mansabdari System Akbar
Iqta system Sultanate rule            
Village autonomy Chola Administration
Ashtapradhan Shivaji
Amuktamalyada Krishnadevaraya


  1. The government fixed the prices of essential commodities.

Black marketeers and hoarders were strictly punished.

The weights and measures were unified.

The government established granaries to store the grains bought from the peasants.

The corns were distributed during the time of famines at a moderate price.

Officers were appointed for the strict implementation of the market regulations.


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